//www.w3.org/TR/xhtml1/DTD/xhtml1-strict.dtd"> 1-1099 C.E. : Media History Project : U of M

Media History Project
mediahst@umn.edu

1-1099 C.E.

Most early dates are approximate

  • 0: Reformed Chinese writing in li-shu style prefigures modern Chinese.
  • 10: Livy’s History of Rome reflects his admiration for its early civilization.
  • 14: Rome sets up network of relay runners carrying messages 50 miles in a day.
  • 18: Ovid dies. Latin poet wrote of myths in the Metamorphoses and of love.
  • 20: Strabo’s Geographia and histories describe the Mediterranean world.
  • 25: Mela publishes map of the known world, with climatic latitudes.
  • 37: Seneca the Elder dies after writing history of Rome.
  • 46: Paul begins preaching Christianity.
  • 50: Paul writes his Epistles.
  • 50: Philo dies after trying to reconcile Greek philosophy, Jewish thought.
  • 60: Petronius’ satirical Satyricon describes vulgarity of Roman luxury.
  • 65: Mark writes the first Gospel.
  • 65: Lucan’s epic poem tells of civil war between Caesar and Pompey.
  • 65: Suicide of Seneca the Younger, author of Dialogues on Stoic thought.
  • 68: History of the Jewish War by a general, Flavius Josephus.
  • 70: Estimated date of Matthew's Gospel.
  • 78: Pliny the Elder dies after compiling the known science of his time.
  • 80: John completes the last book of the Gospels while in Ephesus.
  • 100: Tacitus’ Annals of Imperial Rome describes corrupt emperors.
  • 100: Roman couriers carry government mail across the empire.
  • 100: Most books of the New Testament are completed.
  • 100: In India, Vatsyayana writes of erotic arts, the Kama Sutra.
  • 100: Mayas adorn pyramids with wall mural painting of mythology.
  • 105: Chinese imperial eunuch T’sai Lun is officially credited with inventing paper.
  • 113: Pliny the Younger dies; compiled letters describing the life of Rome.
  • 120: Plutarch dies after writing of lives of important Greeks and Romans.
  • 120: Epictetus’ Discourses support Stoic concept of calm, disciplined life.
  • 122: Suetonius dies; wrote sensational reports on the lives of The Twelve Caesars.
  • 125: Juvenal’s Satires speak of "bread and circuses" to keep Romans pacified.
  • 150: Ptolemy’s Almagest puts Earth at center of static universe; errors remain for 1,500 years..
  • 160: Galen’s medical treatises will influence but limit medicine for 1,300 years.
  • 160: Roman Emperor Marcus Aurelius writes Stoic Meditations in army camp.
  • 160: Apuleius’ The Golden Ass, only Latin fiction to survive in its entirety.
  • 175: Chinese classics are carved in stone that will later be used for rubbings.
  • 180: In China, an elementary zoetrope.
  • 191: Fire destroys Rome’s Palatine library.
  • 200: In China, the "suan-pan" abacus; in Japan, the "soroban" abacus.
  • 200: Monks start to use uncial script based on Greek alphabet.
  • 220: Tertullian supports early Christianity: "It is certain because it is impossible."
  • 230: Japanese begin keeping historical records.
  • 231: In Caesarea, Origen founds school, ties Christianity to Greek philosophy.
  • 235: Dio Cassius dies. His extant histories cover end of republic, rise of imperial Rome.
  • 250: Paper use spreads west from China to central Asia.
  • 270: Plotinus dies after Enneads creates foundation of Neo-Platonism.
  • 272: Most of Alexandrian Library destroyed during civil war.
  • 300: First evidence of Christian plays.
  • 300: In Japan, sumo wrestling.
  • 300: Chinese couriers during Han Dynasty reach Persia, other far countries.
  • 300: Goths carve runic alphabet on wood and stone; will continue for 1,000 years.
  • 325: Council of bishops at Nicaea sets course of Catholic Christianity.
  • 338: Jewish calendar is improved by altering length of years.
  • 350: In Egypt, parchment book of Psalms bound in wood covers.
  • 350: Chinese develop xylography, printing of books from wooden blocks.
  • 350: Chinese bucolic literature flourishes.
  • 370: Rome is said to have 28 public libraries.
  • 386: Singing, including "Hallelujah" hymns, introduced into Christian church.
  • 391: Alexandrian Library destroyed; said ordered by Archbishop of Antioch.
  • 393: Church sanctions 27 books of the New Testament; Christian Bible is complete.
  • 400: Writing systems, vocabulary, spread from India to Southeast Asia.
  • 400: Improved ink made from iron salts, nutgalls, gum.
  • 400: Books cut into pages and bound in codex manner are preferred to scrolls.
  • 400: Palestinian Talmud, first of two, completed.
  • 400: A poet, Claudian, writes biased accounts of last days of the Roman empire.
  • 401: Augustine writes his Confessions.
  • 405: Jerome translates the Bible into Latin, the Vulgate.
  • 410: Visigoths under Alaric sack Rome.
  • 413: Augustine writes The City of God.
  • 415: Murder by monks of woman philosopher Hypatia held to be start of medieval era.
  • 425: Constantinople University is founded.
  • 450: Ink on seals is stamped on paper in China. This is true printing.
  • 450: Beginnings of Old English; it will last 700 years.
  • 450: In India, Kalidasa, greatest of classical Sanskrit writers.
  • 476: In India, mathematician Aryabhata writes of roots and powers of numbers.
  • 476: German warrior Odoacer becomes king, marks the fall of Rome.

  • 496: Pope Gelasius I issues a list of banned books.
  • 500: Indian astronomer writes of heliocentric universe, 1,000 years before Galileo.
  • 500: Indian epic poem, the Ramayana, is written.
  • 500: Peruvians play on drums, flutes, tubas.
  • 500: Greek and Latin versions of the New Testament in the Codex Bezae.
  • 510: Indian astronomer Aryabhata refers to the zero and place values.
  • 520: The start of Western monasticism will keep learning alive in Christian Europe.
  • 521: Boëthius’ On Music will be Western standard for 1,000 years.
  • 524: Awaiting execution, Boëthius writes The Consolation of Philosophy in prison.
  • 525: Dionysius Exiguus starts "B.C.", "A.D."; incorrectly dates birth of Jesus.
  • 529: Emperor Justinian closes Athenian School of Philosophy, 1,000 years old.
  • 535: Justinian codifies Roman law, the basis of modern civil law.
  • 540: Cassiodorus founds monastery with focus on copying ancient manuscripts.
  • 550: Chess is invented in India.
  • 550: Buddhism enters Japan, leading to growth of literacy, book publishing.
  • 560: Procopius writes biased first-hand histories of the Byzantine world.
  • 595: In India, calculations done with nine numerals and zero, the decimal system.
  • 598: The first school in England, at Canterbury.
  • 600: Beginnings of Gregorian plainsong chants.
  • 600: Books printed in China.
  • 600: Babylonian Talmud, second of two, completed.
  • 600: In China, The Water Dragon Classic leads to the study of fengshui.
  • 606: Chinese officials establish written examination for civil service positions.
  • 600: Pope Gregory collects church chants; Gregorian Chant named in his honor.
  • 600: Quill pens made from crow feathers.
  • 609: Celts play on a stringed instrument, the crwth.
  • 615: The first records of the teachings of Mohammed.
  • 619: In China, large orchestras, with bells, drums, flutes, gongs, guitars.
  • 622: Isidore of Seville’s Origins, encyclopedic attempt to record world’s knowledge.
  • 622: Start of the Muslim lunar year calendar.
  • 640: Arab invaders find 300,000 scrolls in Alexandrian library.
  • 641: Invaders shut down Alexandrian book copying, famed school, culture center.
  • 650: Arab rulers create a news service.
  • 650: The chapters of the Qur’an (Koran) are collected.
  • 650: Muslim caliphs set up regular pigeon post, the first news service.
  • 683: In the Khmer kingdom of Cambodia, the concept of zero appears as a dot.
  • 691: Dome of the Rock inscriptions are earliest extant quotes from Qur’an.
  • 700: Sizing agents are used to improve paper quality.
  • 700: In India, a humorous precursor to the novel, The Adventures of the Ten Princes.
  • 700: Lindisfarne Gospels are written, an example of handsome calligraphy.
  • 712: In Japan, Kojiki: Records of Ancient Matters, the sacred book of Shinto.
  • 716: Codex Amitianus combines Old and New Testaments in 1,030 folios.
  • 731: In England, the Venerable Bede summarizes most of the learning of his era.
  • 740: A newspaper is printed in China.
  • 740: Katakana, one of two syllabic Japanese alphabets.
  • 740: Moors invade Spain, bringing learning and advanced culture.
  • 750: The Chinese, with the world’s most advanced technology, block-print on paper.
  • 750: Golden age of Chinese poetry, art.
  • 750: The Indian zero appears in China, Islamic countries.
  • 751: Paper made outside of China, in Samarkand, by Chinese captured in war.
  • 760: Indian numerals, including zero, reach Java.
  • 764: Japanese Empress Shotoku orders printing of one million Buddhist charms.
  • 765: Picture books are block printed in Japan.
  • 770: Oldest surviving printing: a Buddhist prayer for Japanese Empress Shotoku.
  • 771: Mayan calculation includes place values and the zero.
  • 790: Schools for religious music in several European cities.
  • 793: Paper-making moves west to Baghdad at the height of Islamic culture.
  • 800: Irish Book of Kells, masterpiece of illumination; now at Dublin’s Trinity College.
  • 800: Charlemagne encourages a revival of learning, the "Carolingian Renaissance."
  • 800: Western Europe gets a small, neat script style, the "Carolingian Miniscule."
  • 800: The Gregorian Chant originates in the Frankish Empire.
  • 800: Government pony express in Charlemagne’s Western Europe.
  • 813: In Baghdad, "House of Knowledge" preserves ancient Greek scientific writing.
  • 816: In Japan, Kobo Daishi founds Shingon Buddhism center at Mount Koya.
  • 820: In Baghdad, al-Khwarizmi, develops algebra, algorithms.
  • 830: Reference is made to a Chinese printed book.
  • 845: Chinese government prints too much paper money, goes bankrupt.
  • 850: In Moorish Spain, the gobar numerals are used, prefiguring modern numerals.
  • 850: Arab and Jewish scholars raise European awareness of, interest in, Aristotle.
  • 850: Arab philosopher al-Kindi starts neoplatonic school of Islamic thought.
  • 850: The Slavs get a writing system; the Cyrillic alphabet will follow.
  • 850: Church music begins move from monophony to counterpoint, polyphony.
  • 863: Irish philosopher Erigena writes On the Distribution of Nature.
  • 863: Two brothers, both monks, develop the Cyrillic alphabet.
  • 868: The Diamond Sutra, block-printed book in China; it’s the oldest existing book.
  • 871: Monks begin Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, history of England, in Latin.
  • 835: Japanese Buddhist priest, Kûkai, develops hiragana, a syllabic alphabet.
  • 875: Amazed Western travelers to China see toilet paper.
  • 890: Alfred the Great supervises translation of Latin works into Old English.
  • 900: The 1001 Arabian Nights of tales within a tale.
  • 900: China’s Tang Dynasty has courier system with more than 1,600 stations.
  • 940: Jewish philosopher Saadiah translates Hebrew literature into Arabic.
  • 942: Welsh prince orders laws to be written down.
  • 942: Arabs use kettledrums and trumpets.
  • 950: Paper is made in Damascus and Cairo.
  • 950: Folded books appear in China in place of rolls.
  • 950: Women in a Chinese harem invent playing cards.
  • 950: Lady Li Fu-jen, a Chinese calligrapher, paints on bamboo.
  • 968: In Córdoba, in Muslim-ruled Spain, a university is founded.
  • 972: First woman playwright since ancient Rome, Hroswitha of Gandersheim, dies.
  • 975: In Cairo, studies begin at al-Azhar, now world’s oldest university.
  • 975: First airmail parcel post: pigeons each carry one cherry to Arab caliph.
  • 980: First appearance in Christian Europe (Spain) of Indian-Arabic numerals.
  • 983: An encyclopedia, the Taiping Yulan, is produced in China.
  • 998: Archbishop Gerbert, scholar and book collector, becomes Pope Sylvester II.
  • 1000: In Japan, Lady Sei Shonagon reveals her amours in The Pillow Book.
  • 1000: Epic poem Beowulf is written down.
  • 1000: Mayas in Yucatan, Mexico, make writing paper from tree bark.
  • 1002: Murasaki Shikabu’s The Tale of Genji, is the world’s first novel.
  • 1021: Alhazen’s study of optics may be first to use empirical, observable science.
  • 1026: Benedictine monk Guido D’Arezzo introduces do-re-mi-fa-so-la scale into singing.
  • 1030: Persian mystic philosopher-physician Avicenna (Ibn Sina) writes Book of Healing.
  • 1030: Italian monk Guido d’Arezzo creates solfège system to learn music by ear.
  • 1035: Japanese use waste paper to make new paper.
  • 1038: Arab scholar Alhazen describes a room-size camera obscura.
  • 1048: Pi Sheng, a Chinese commoner, fabricates movable type using clay.
  • 1050: The Song of Roland recounts old battle, glorifies French nobility.
  • 1050: In Europe, the harp.
  • 1077: The Bayeux Tapestry completed; depicts the Norman conquest.
  • 1079: In Persia, Omar Khayyam calculates year’s length almost to the minute.
  • 1086: The Domesday Book, census of people and property, reveals life in England.
  • 1086: Ssu-Ma-Kuang dies after writing history of China, 403 B.C.E. - 959 C.E.
  • 1095: First Crusade is marker between Dark Ages and Middle Ages.